Here’s how to define a simple LISP function
1: (defun pi () 2: "A sample non-interactive function" 3: 3.1415 4: )
The above is a non-interactive function that simply returns 3.1415. Evaluate it (
C-x C-e, remember?) and you will see the word pi appear in the echo area. Try
M-x pi, though, and Emacs won’t find the function. If you want to be able to call a function using M-x, you have to make it interactive, as follows.
1: (defun print-pi() 2: "Insert an approximation to pi" 3: (interactive) 4: (insert "3.1415") 5: )
So why would you want a non-interactive function? Perhaps because you want it to be called from another function, as follows:
1: (defun circumference-of-circle() 2: (interactive) 3: (message "The circumference of a circle diameter 3 is %f" (* pi 3)) 4: )
Before evaluating the above function, make sure that you have evaluated the non-interactive function pi.
There are lots of different types of interactive functions. The next interactive function is more useful in that it prompts for the diameter to be input (the n at the start of “nInput diameter of circle:” is what tells Emacs to prompt for a number)
1: (defun circumference-of-circle(diameter) 2: "Calculate the circumference of a circle given the diameter" 3: (interactive "nInput diameter of circle:") 4: (message "The circumference of a circle diameter %d is %f" diameter (* 3.1415 diameter)) 5: )
Here’s the same function but this time set up to receive the parameter from the universal argument. That is to say, in the form
C-u 4 M-x circumference-of-circle.
1: (defun circumference-of-circle(diameter) 2: (interactive "p") 3: (message "The circumference of a circle diameter %d is %f" diameter (* 3.1415 diameter)) 4: )
Here’s an example of a function that reads strings and tests your knowledge of capital cities.
1: (defun capital-of-france(answer) 2: "Simple quiz example." 3: (interactive "sWhat's the Capital of France?") 4: (if (string= answer "paris") (message "Correct!") (message "Wrong!")) 5: )
Argument codes for interactive functions can be found here http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/html_node/elisp/Interactive-Codes.html#Interactive-Codes